Thursday, August 8, 2013


The global community especially the technologically advanced world is striving to attain what has been the global information age. It is an age that is envisaged to go beyond the use of computers as a mere tool for fast information processing, rather they will also become medium for processing and transferring such information from one location to another at equal fast rate. As a result, its appalling that sales in developing country like Nigeria have not been able to benefit much from this revolutionized age of Information technology especially in the area of a computerized Point Of Sales.A computerized point of sale system is a computer program which takes the best out of a manual system and electronic cash registers features. An electronic point of sale gives you the ability to store client and supplier records, create quotations which can be later converted to invoices or cash sales, keep track and categorize your inventory in an easy way and generate reports at the click of a button! With today's high performance computers and large storage devices one can easily run his/her business on an office computer (depending on the size of the business). 


One of the great recent advances in the world of information technology is the rapid development of communication which has brought world into a global village, we can send mails electronically (e-mail), search for information (WWW), buy goods online (e-commerce), withdraw transfer money (e-banking), schooling online (e-learning), this has effected the society positive to a great extent, as result computerization of sales should not be exempted                                                                                                                                                                                     
Application of technology in Sales has been adopted in developed countries for over two decades now, and this has been attributed to the desire of the governments of these countries to improve the efficiency of their goods and services, processes, accountability.
Switching from a traditional cash register to a computerized POS system can be difficult - there are many factors to consider and some pitfalls to avoid. However the return on investment and benefits to your business can really make it worth your time and effort.
In the most basic sense, a POS system is a glorified cash register. The most basic POS system consists of a computer, a cash drawer, receipt printer, a monitor, and an input device such as a keyboard or scanner. However, in addition to being more efficient than cash registers, POS systems can create detailed reports that can help you make more informed business decisions.
POS systems saves money, provide productivity gains, and can cut down the amount of time you spend away from the primary focus of your business. This POS System Buyer's Guide will walk you through the process of evaluating multiple POS vendors and choosing the right system.
Sales is the fundamental tools in any business organization the profit and loose of any business depends detailed information on sales made to aid decision making and implementations, if accountability is not checked, then the business is sure to collapse, as a result in any retail or hospitality business there is need for a system that gives feedback to the management to aid decision making, this is where point of sales systems comes in handy  
The purpose of this study is to aid Golden Toast Enugu in enhancing their business by creating detailed reports that can help make more informed business decisions.
Moving from a cash register machine to a Point of Sales system is very significant to any retail sales of business activities because the return on investment and benefits to your business in the area of stocks processing, accountability and accurate data collation for effective management of the business.   
1.5                SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project covers Golden Toast Enugu Office, the design will only cover the point of sales section of the company.
1.6               OBJECTIVE
        The aims and object of this project to design and implement a computerized point of sale software with the aim of enhancing accountability within points of sales. 
Most constraints experienced during the course of writing this project is that of detailed information about their major operations, the personal manager was a little diplomatic in answering my questions in order to reveal information that may indent the company’s image, though that did not stop me from writing and researching for detailed information
It is assumed that Golden Toast Enugu, uses cash register as their point of sales and they are networked and connection to the internet for effective information dissemination.
·        Bar Code: information encoded into a rectangular bar shape, this information can be read by special device.
·        Cash Drawer: a box attached to point of sales system that opens when directed by the software.
·        Daisy Chained: used when one device is connected through another device
·        Data Collection Terminal: a stationary or hand held battery powered terminal with application software use to collect and process data from bar code
·        LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) : technology used for display.
·        VAR(Value Added Reseller): a classification of business that resells items and add some value to the sale either in training or supports
·          SKU(Stock Keep Unit): used in inventory control and POS where each product is assigned a number.
·        Warranty A written guarantee of a manufacturer's or retailer's responsibility. A limited warranty provides specific conditions under which a manufacturer or retailer will repair or replace an item.
·        Drawer fund The amount of money left in a drawer after the drawer has been closed. The drawer fund is typically used to provide startup money (change) for the next business day.
·        Drop-ship Refers to an item that will be shipped directly from your supplier to your customer.
·        DUKPT (Derived Unique Key Per Transaction) A method of PIN pad encryption.
·        Dun A demand for payment of a bill or account.
·        EBT (Electronic Benefit Transfer) An electronic system that allows recipients to receive government benefits (e.g., food stamps) by means of a debit card. Retailers can only accept EBT cards for food items that have been authorized by the USDA’s Food Stamp program
·        EDC (Electronic Draft Capture) : An automatic method of authorizing, balancing, and settling credit card transactions entered in your retail software package.
·        EDI (Electronic Data Interchange): Ability to electronically exchange purchasing information between your retail software and the vendor's system.
·        Employee discount :A reduction in selling price on merchandise sold to an employee.
·        Accounts receivable Amounts owed to a business (an asset), usually by customers who purchased goods or services on credit.
·        Adjustment An increase or decrease to the quantity indicated in the retail software package. The adjustment ensures that the records in the retail software match the actual physical quantity in inventory.
·        Additional markdown :An increase of a previous markdown to further lower the selling price.
·        Address Verification Service (AVS) A service that reduces credit card fraud by verifying the cardholder's address information when the physical card isn't available to swipe through an MSR device (e.g., as with telephone orders). AVS processing doesn't affect whether the charge is approved. Instead, AVS indicates whether or not the address provided by the customer matches the address on file with the credit card company so that the merchant can decide whether or not to process the charge.

Monday, August 5, 2013



This project work is meant to design an automated inventory control system for Guinness Nigeria Plc. According to Kower (2011), who defined inventory as “an asset that is owned by a business that has the express purpose of being sold to a customer. This includes items sold to end customers or distributors. It includes raw materials, and finished goods. The need for this automated system was to solve the problems that were associated with the manual system of inventory control in the company; some of these problems were traced to strenuous paper work and calculation in taking down stock after and during sales or purchase of new products or raw materials. In other to solve this problem, there was an analysis that was carried out on the old system so as to know how to automate the new system to perform more than the conventional system that was used in the company. From the analysis, the system will be designed to achieve the following: Enable the management to get the information about stock levels of various items in the least possible time, Provides a kind of inventory system that can link to sales and accounting departments. The new system was designed with Microsoft visual basic 6.0  




          Kower (2011) defined inventory as “an asset that is owned by a business that has the express purpose of being sold to a customer. This includes items sold to end customers or distributors. It includes raw materials, and finished goods. The management of inventory is a key concern of all businesses. Inventory generally refers to the materials in stock. It is also called the idle resource of an enterprise. Inventories represent those items which are either stocked for sale or they are in the process of manufacturing or they are in the form of materials, which are yet to be utilised. The interval between receiving the purchased parts and transforming them into final products varies from industries to industries depending upon the cycle time of manufacture. It is, therefore, necessary to hold inventories of various kinds to act as a buffer between supply and demand for efficient operation of the system. Thus, an effective control on inventory is a must for smooth and efficient running of the production cycle with least interruptions in companies using Guinness Nigeria Plc as case study.       

          Spencer (2000) defined inventory as the stock of goods that business firm has no band including raw materials suppliers and finished goals.

          Inventory refers to the goods kept by a firm or an organization that are either used in production kept for resale, or in the process of being manufactured to the finished products.

          To the entire three definitions, inventory means money tied up in property that is intended to sale or used in merchandising concern, the inventory will be made up mostly of finished goods but in a manufacturing environment, a major part of the inventory was made up of raw materials and goods that have been particularly processed. The former belongs to raw materials inventory while the later one is classified as work in process inventory. There are other items, which though used up in the production process so does not form part of the final product. Examples are lubricants, pencil etc. are called supplies.

          There are some advantages to be derived from keeping large inventory. A good inventory system is cost associated with this: a good inventory system should have an effective way of determining the acceptable trade off to enhance the profitability of the firm.

 These method and term relating inventory are discussed in chapter two.


          In other to carry out the process of adequate inventory control system stock of various products is usually kept. Keeping and controlling of inventory is a primary duty of the store department with inputs from the sales and purchasing departments.

          Guinness Nigeria Plc is still at a development phase of its system including the inventory system to meet up with the current time. The inventory system being used currently is wholly manual and involves a lot of paper work and calculation, which hopefully will be standardized with time.

          The present system is only effective to some extent and may not stand the test of time as the company goes into selling and buying of products or other accessories. This will meet new stock of product to be kept. Complex sales are in fact flexible, dynamic and efficient inventory system as outlined above requires electronic data processing to implement. The computer provides the solution to such problem.


          The main objective of this study is to device and design a computer based inventory control system, which will among other things.

i.        Enable the management to get the information about stock levels of various items in the least possible time.

ii.       Ensure that the quality information in (i) above is maintained

iii.      Provides a kind of inventory system that can link to sales and accounting departments.

iv.      Has an in-built learning system on re-order level to avoid expenses stock out.

v.       Computer system should be used to replace the manual process of handling information, so as to ensure that information will be always accurate.


          All businesses rely on inventory control systems to be able to run their business. Inventory control systems play this significant role by accounting for all goods or products. It also shows where a particular item is in the flow of sales, whether it be in a warehouse or on a store shelf.

Below is some of the significance of the research work

       I.            The system will assist management in making important business decisions.

    II.            To design an effective and accurate record keeping techniques in terms of the stock of Guinness products.


          Sales and accounting inventory system are all embarking in nature, however, all the areas can not be covered at once the work is therefore limited in the computerization of items or products inventory and monitoring of machinery, products and equipment in Guinness Nigeria Plc.


STOCK:    This is the total value of money, equipment building etc. of a business company

INVENTORS:     A person or organization that uses money to buy share or property develops a business enterprise in order to make profit.

ORGANIZATION:      This is the state or condition of being organized

PROGRAM:       These are series of instructions in code that control the operation of the computer

HARDWARE:    These are the entire physical device found in the computer system

SOFTWARE:      This is a term used to describe all the various programs that may be used in a computer system together with their associated documentation

DATA PROCESSING:          It is the collection and manipulation of item of data to produce meaningful information.